Here's an interesting piece. It's one of those things that looks a bit specialised but when you think about it has enormous ramifications.
In the USA there used to be a strong racial bias in liver transplant, to the disadvantage of Black patients. But since an objective scoring system (the MELD score) was introduced in 2002 this disparity has disappeared. So the ramification is this - how many other disparities or inequities could be abolished if we paid more attention to measurement rather than subjective opinion or guesswork?
And a footnote - introducing the MELD score didn't abolish gender disparities - women were less likely to receive a transplant than men both before and after MELD. In an accompanying editorial two possibilities are suggested - firstly the spectrum of liver disease in women differs from that in men. Secondly women are smaller than men - and all allocation systems allocate small livers first to children. So sometimes a disparity reflects a biological reality not an injustice.